1. Home page
  2. General Information

Languages Spoken in Turkey

Languages Spoken in Turkey
Languages Spoken In Turkey

Turkey, with its rich tapestry of history, cultures, and geographical significance, boasts a diverse linguistic landscape. While Turkish is the dominant and official language, several other languages are spoken across the country, reflecting its multifaceted heritage. Here’s an overview of the languages spoken in Turkey:

1. Turkish:

  • Official Status: Turkish is the official language of Turkey and is spoken by the vast majority of the population.
  • Origin: It belongs to the Turkic language family and has undergone significant reforms in the 20th century, including the adoption of the Latin script.
  • Usage: Used in government, education, media, business, and daily communication.

2. Kurdish:

  • Population: Kurdish is spoken by the Kurdish minority, which constitutes approximately 15-20% of the population.
  • Regions: Predominantly spoken in the southeastern regions of Turkey.
  • Dialects: Includes Kurmanj, Sorani, and Zaza.

3. Arabic:

  • Population: Spoken by the Arab minority in Turkey, which makes up about 1-2% of the population.
  • Regions: Mostly found in the southeastern parts of Turkey, near the Syrian border.
  • Usage: While many Turkish Arabs are bilingual in Turkish and Arabic, Arabic is often used in daily communication, religious practices, and cultural events.

4. Circassian (Adyghe):

  • Population: Circassians, also known as Adyghe, form a minority in Turkey.
  • Regions: Predominantly found in the provinces of Samsun, Ordu, and Tokat, among others.
  • Usage: The language is still spoken among the Circassian community, especially by the older generation.

5. Laz:

  • Population: The Laz people are an ethnic group primarily living in the Black Sea region.
  • Regions: Mainly in Rize and Artvin provinces.
  • Status: Laz is considered an endangered language, with efforts being made to revive and preserve it.

6. Georgian:

  • Population: Spoken by the Georgian minority in Turkey.
  • Regions: Mostly in the northeastern parts of Turkey, near the Georgian border.
  • Usage: While many are bilingual in Turkish and Georgian, the language is still used in daily life and cultural events.

7. Other Languages:

  • Bosnian, Albanian, and Macedonian: Spoken by the descendants of immigrants from the Balkans.
  • Romani: Spoken by the Romani community in Turkey.
  • Greek: Historically spoken by the Greek community, especially in Istanbul, but now limited due to population exchanges and migrations in the 20th century.
  • Armenian: Spoken by the Armenian community, primarily in Istanbul.


Turkey’s linguistic diversity is a testament to its rich history and cultural intersections. While Turkish remains the dominant language, the presence of various minority languages adds to the country’s cultural richness. Efforts are being made to preserve and promote these languages, ensuring that Turkey’s diverse linguistic heritage continues to thrive.

Aykut Ozcan serves as a travel consultant at heyturkey.com. With a passion for travel, he is an experienced travel advisor with extensive destination knowledge, expertly turning every traveler's dreams into reality.

Author Profile

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *